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What Could Cause Bunions?

Overview
Bunions Callous
A bunion is a combination of an enlargement of the joint at the base and side of the big toe as well as the big toe being angled towards the rest of the toes (this angulation is known as Hallux Valgus). A bunion can lead to other foot deformities and problems such as a hammer toe of the second toe, corns and calluses as well as ingrown toenails. So if the pain isn’t enough of a driving factor, the chance of developing these further complications should outline the importance and urgency of seeking treatment with a podiatrist.


Causes
Bunions tend to run in families, although it is the faulty foot mechanics that lead to bunions that are inherited, not the bunions themselves. Some authorities, in fact, suggest that the most significant factor in bunion formation is the poor foot mechanics passed down through families. However, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society estimates that women have bunions nine times more often than men, that 88 percent of women in the United States wear shoes that are too small, and that 55 percent of women have bunions. Again, this reflects the wearing of shoes with tight, pointed toes, or with high heels that shift all of your body’s weight onto your toes and also jam your toes into your shoes’ toe boxes. It should be noted that it generally takes years of continued stress on the toes for bunions to develop.


Symptoms
The main sign of a bunion is the big toe pointing towards the other toes on the same foot, which may force the foot bone attached to it (the first metatarsal) to stick outwards. Other symptoms may include a swollen, bony bump on the outside edge of your foot, pain and swelling over your big toe joint that’s made worse by pressure from wearing shoes, hard, callused and red skin caused by your big toe and second toe overlapping, sore skin over the top of the bunion, changes to the shape of your foot, making it difficult to find shoes that fit. These symptoms can sometimes get worse if the bunion is left untreated, so it’s best to see a GP. They’ll ask you about your symptoms and examine your foot. In some cases, an X-ray may be recommended to assess the severity of your bunion. Anyone can develop a bunion, but they’re more common in women than men. This may be because of the style of footwear that women wear.


Diagnosis
Diagnosis begins with a careful history and physical examination by your doctor. This will usually include a discussion about shoe wear and the importance of shoes in the development and treatment of the condition. X-rays will probably be suggested. This allows your doctor to measure several important angles made by the bones of the feet to help determine the appropriate treatment.


Non Surgical Treatment
The choice of treatment for a bunion lies between non-operative (conservative) and operative treatment. Conservative treatment for a bunion means either wearing wider fitting shoes or shoes with softer leather or using some form of a spacer between the big toe and 2nd toe (or alternatively some form of splint to keep the great toe away from the 2nd toe). The spacers or splintage may apparently straighten the bunion but they make no difference to the width of the foot, and the splaying of the 1st and 2nd metatarsals which occur with a bunion deformity. Therefore this type of treatment will not improve the main pain in a bunion which occurs due to the width of the forefoot. An arch type support orthotic may be useful if a bunion is associated with a flatter foot. If you have a bunion this is however just one other thing to get into a shoe with an already wide foot.
Bunions Hard Skin


Surgical Treatment
Surgery isn’t recommended unless a bunion causes you frequent pain. A bunionectomy, like other types of surgery, is not without risk. Additionally, you may still have pain or you could develop a new bunion in your big toe joint after surgery. Consider trying conservative treatment before having a bunionectomy.If you have an underlying mechanical fault,surgery will only correct the aesthetical nature of your bunion for a short period.So therefore surgery is not recommended.

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